Pengertian & Contoh Trannbare Verben (English Translation)

Pengertian & Contoh Trannbare Verben (English Translation)

Pengertian & Contoh Trannbare Verben (English Translation)

Handout: Separable and Inseparable Prefixes

As you know, German verbs can have separable prefixes. These prefixes change the meaning of the original verb, and make a new word. In the present tense, separable prefixes are separated from the verb and placed at the end of the sentence bracket. The separation rule also applies in the imperative. When used in the infinitive, however (e.g. with a modal auxiliary), separable prefix verbs are not divided. As you will shortly learn, the participle forms in the past tense are also combined.

Hans steht jeden Tag um 9.00 Uhr auf. Hans gets up every day at 9:00.
Hans, steh jetzt auf! Hans, get up now!
Hans muss jeden Tag um 9.00 Uhr aufstehen. Hans has to get up every day at 9:00.

Common separable prefixes. Remember that this list is only a rough guide to the meanings of prefixes, since their use is highly idiomatic.

ab = off, down abholen = to pick up
abnehmen = to take off
an = at, on anfangen = to start, begin
anrufen = to call, telephone
anziehen = to put on, dress
auf = up aufhören = to stop
aufräumen = to clean up
aufstehen = to get up, stand up
aus = out ausgehen = to go out
aussehen = to look, appear
ein = in, into einkaufen = to shop
einschlafen = to fall asleep
fern = far fernsehen = to watch TV
fort = away fortgehen = to leave, go away
her = ‘hither’, to here herholen = to fetch
herkommen = to come from
hin = ‘thither’, to there hinstellen = to place, put
mit = with, along mitbringen = to bring along
mitkommen = to come along
mitnehmen = to take along
nach = after nachdenken = to think, reflect
nachfragen = to inquire, ask after
um = around, at umsehen = to look around
vor = before vorhaben = to have planned
vorstellen = to introduce
vorbei = by, past vorbeikommen = to come by
weg = away weggehen = to go away, leave
wegnehmen = to take away
zu = to, closed zuhören = to listen
zumachen = to close
zurück = back zurückgeben = to give back
zurückkommen = to come back
zusammen = together zusammenkommen = to come together



Some German verbs have recognizable prefixes that are INSEPARABLE, e.g. they remain with the verb at all times.

Das Feuer zerstört unser Haus. The fire is destroying our house.
Zerstör das Haus! Destroy the house!
Das Feuer kann unser Haus zerstören. The fire can destroy our house.

The meanings of these prefixes are much harder to explain, since they often perform a grammatical function but do not have a direct English cognate. Nonetheless, here’s a short list of common INSEPARABLE prefixes and example verbs.

be = makes a verb transitive beantworten = to answer (a question)
          or turns action towards object besuchen = to visit
bekommen = to receive, get
ent, emp = beginning of action entgehen = to escape
          or separation empfangen = to receive
er = stress on outcome erleben = to experience
          or accomplishment erkennen = to recognize
ge = result, completeness or gewinnen = to win or gain
          successful action gebrauchen = to use up, consume
miss = same as English ‘mis-’ missverstehen = to misunderstand
missbrauchen = to abuse
ver = action of the verb has verschlafen = to oversleep
          miscarried (BUT NOT ALWAYS!) verlaufen = to go astray
zer = asunder, apart zerbrechen = to break into pieces
zerstören = to destroy

Let’s practice just a little. Form complete German sentences out of the elements.

1. ich / vorbeikommen / heute / um 8 Uhr
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
2. wann / du / müssen / aufstehen ?
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
3. wir / gewinnen / das Fußballspiel .
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Hans, / aufräumen / dein Zimmer!
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
5. Hans, / besuchen / mich !
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
6. fernsehen / du / jetzt ?
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
7. erkennen / du / ihn ?
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
8. zurückgeben / mir / mein Buch !
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Was hat Anna heute vor? Write the sentences using the elements given. Pay attention to word order!

1. Anna / aufwachen / um 7.30 Uhr
     Anna wacht um sieben Uhr dreißig auf.
2. sie (sg) / bleiben / im Bett / bis 8
  __________________________________________________________________________________________
3. sie (sg) / aufstehen / um 8 Uhr
  __________________________________________________________________________________________
4. sie (sg) / haben / Frühstück / um 8.30 Uhr
  __________________________________________________________________________________________
5. sie (sg) / dann / anrufen / ihren Freund Stefan
  __________________________________________________________________________________________
6. Stefan / vorbeikommen / um 9.45 Uhr
  __________________________________________________________________________________________
7. Anna und Stefan / einkaufen / zusammen (=together) / im Supermarkt
  __________________________________________________________________________________________
8. sie (pl) / spazieren gehen / danach (=afterwards)
  __________________________________________________________________________________________
9. Anna / kennen lernen / Stefans Bruder
  __________________________________________________________________________________________
10. Anna / gehen / auf eine Party / am Abend
  __________________________________________________________________________________________
11. Stefan / mitkommen / zur Party
  __________________________________________________________________________________________
12. Anna und Stefan / mitbringen / Wein und Käse
  __________________________________________________________________________________________
13. Anna / zurückkommen / sehr spät
  __________________________________________________________________________________________
14. sie (sg) / schlafen gehen / um 2 Uhr morgens
  __________________________________________________________________________________________

Selamat Mengerjakan …

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